Cardinal Richelieu Foreign Policy: Early Modern History (Early Modern History Series Book 9)
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Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the declaration. Louis also attached nobles to his court at Versailles and thus achieved increased control over the French aristocracy. Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king. However, the pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis. For this purpose, an elaborate court ritual was created where the king became the center of attention and was observed throughout the day by the public.
With his excellent memory, Louis could see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favors and positions. Moreover, by entertaining, impressing, and domesticating nobles with extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis not only cultivated public opinion of himself, but also ensured the aristocracy remained under his scrutiny. This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented the aristocracy from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power-bases, from which they historically had waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.
In their place, he raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy as presumably easier to control.
Finally, Louis dramatically limited religious tolerance in France, as he saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside Edict of Nantes-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.
He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages where third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.
In , he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions. It revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. By his edict, Louis no longer tolerated Protestant groups, pastors, or churches to exist in France. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptized forcibly into the established church.
It granted the Calvinist Protestants of France, known as Huguenots, substantial rights in a predominately Catholic nation. Through the Edict, Henry aimed to promote civil unity. The Edict treated some, although not all, Protestants with tolerance and opened a path for secularism.
It offered general freedom of conscience to individuals and many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the state and to bring grievances directly to the king. It marked the end of the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century.
The Edict gained a new significance when Louis XIV, known as the Sun King, broke the post-Nantes tradition of relative religious tolerance in France and, in his efforts to fully centralize the royal power, began to persecute the Protestants.
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His reign of seventy-two years and days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. Louis saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.
An enforced yet steady conversion of Protestants followed, especially among the noble elites. In , Louis dramatically increased the persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio had usually meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.
Although this was within his legal rights, the policy known as dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain and atrocious abuse on Protestants. Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.
The Politics of Religion in Early Modern France
In , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions. The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes, and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. By this edict, Louis no longer tolerated Protestant groups, pastors, or churches to exist in France. No further Protestant churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were to be baptized forcibly into the established church.
The Edict of Fontainebleau is compared by historians with the Alhambra Decree, ordering the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, and with Expulsion of the Moriscos during — The three are similar both as outbursts of religious intolerance ending periods of relative tolerance and in their social and economic effects. In practice, the revocation caused France to suffer a kind of early brain drain, as it lost a large number of skilled craftsmen.
Some rulers, such as Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg, encouraged the Protestants to seek refuge in their nations. However, others view this as an exaggeration. Most Catholics in France, however, applauded the move. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes created a state of affairs in France similar to that of nearly every other European country of the period with the brief exception of Great Britain and possibly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , where only the majority state religion was legally tolerated. The experiment of religious toleration in Europe was effectively ended for the time being.
This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly.
Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)
In addition to making sweeping domestic reforms, which completed the process of turning France into the absolute monarchy under the sole authority of the king, Louis XIV aspired to make France the leading European power. His ambitions pushed other leading European states to form alliances against an increasingly aggressive France.
However, this success, which came with the price of massive foreign and military spending, kept France on the continuous verge of bankruptcy. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. In , Louis believed that he had a pretext to go to war with Spain and allow him to claim the Spanish Netherlands present-day Belgium. However, his claims to the Spanish Netherlands were tenuous; in , France and Spain had concluded the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ended twenty-four years of war between the two states.
The conflict that followed is known as the War of Devolution — A total of twelve conquered cities remained in the hands of the French king. The king blamed it, his former close ally, for the creation of the Triple Alliance, whose pressure had put a halt to his conquests.
Continuing his mission to isolate and attack the Dutch Republic, which Louis considered to be a trading rival consisting of seditious republicans and Protestant heretics, the French king made another move on the Spanish Netherlands. His first and primary objective was to gain the support of England. England felt threatened by the Dutch naval power and did not need much encouragement to leave the Triple Alliance. Sweden agreed to indirectly support the invasion of the Republic by threatening Brandenburg-Prussia if that state should intervene.
His decision to cross the Rhine in September aimed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims. But when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, and when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French king at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions. The Maritime Powers England and the Dutch Republic were also financially exhausted, and when Savoy defected from the Alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement.
http://ipdwew0030atl2.public.registeredsite.com/185542-what-is-the.php By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace but was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis also accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. At home, local and even religious interests were subordinated to those of the whole nation and the king. Key Terms Huguenots : Members of a French Protestant denomination with origins in the 16th or 17th centuries.
Historically, they were French Protestants inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the s. The majority endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism. It confirmed the basic principles of the Edict of Nantes, but differed in that it contained additional clauses, stating that the Huguenots no longer had political rights and further demanding that they relinquish all cities and fortresses immediately.
It ended the religious warring while granting the Huguenots amnesty and guaranteeing them tolerance. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation. It was the last major battle of the war and was critical to the eventual triumph of the French over the Spanish Habsburgs. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers. Rise to Power Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April Legacy Richelieu died of natural causes in He functioned essentially as the co-ruler of France alongside the queen during the regency of Anne, and until his death effectively directed French policy alongside the monarch, Louis XIV.
He was critical to the negotiations of the Peace of Westphalia, which left France the most powerful state in continental Europe. However, the Huguenots never achieved any protection.
The attempt to curb existing liberties resulted in a series of civil wars known as the Fronde. Although Mazarin and the king confronted the combined opposition of the princes, the nobility, the law courts parlements , and most of the French people, they won out in the end. The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, that of the parlements and that of the nobles, and its collapse only strengthened the absolute monarchy.
Jansenism : A Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in It was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits.
Edict of Nantes : An edict signed probably in by King Henry IV of France that granted the Calvinist Protestants of France also known as Huguenots substantial rights in the nation, which was, at the time, still considered essentially Catholic. It separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance.